A great way to get introduced to AngularJS is to work through this tutorial, which walks you through the construction of an Angular web app. The app you will build is a catalog that displays a list of Android devices, lets you filter the list to see only devices that interest you, and then view details for any device.
Follow the tutorial to see how Angular makes browsers smarter — without the use of native extensions or plug-ins:
See examples of how to use client-side data binding to build dynamic views of data that change immediately in response to user actions.
See how Angular keeps your views in sync with your data without the need for DOM manipulation.
Learn a better, easier way to test your web apps, with Karma and Protractor.
Learn how to use dependency injection and services to make common web tasks, such as getting data into your app, easier.
When you finish the tutorial you will be able to:
Create a dynamic application that works in all modern browsers.
Use data binding to wire up your data model to your views.
Create and run unit tests, with Karma.
Create and run end-to-end tests, with Protractor.
Move application logic out of the template and into components and controllers.
Get data from a server using Angular services.
Apply animations to your application, using the
Structure your Angular applications in a modular way that scales well for larger projects.
Identify resources for learning more about AngularJS.
The tutorial guides you through the entire process of building a simple application, including writing and running unit and end-to-end tests. Experiments at the end of each step provide suggestions for you to learn more about AngularJS and the application you are building.
You can go through the whole tutorial in a couple of hours or you may want to spend a pleasant day really digging into it. If you're looking for a shorter introduction to AngularJS, check out the Getting Started document.
The rest of this page explains how you can set up your local machine for development. If you just want to read the tutorial, you can go straight to the first step: Step 0 – Bootstrapping.
Working with the Code
You can follow along with this tutorial and hack on the code in the comfort of your own computer. This way, you can get hands-on practice of really writing Angular code and also on using the recommended testing tools.
The tutorial relies on the use of the Git versioning system for source code management. You don't need to know anything about Git to follow the tutorial other than how to install and run a few git commands.
You can download and install Git from http://git-scm.com/download. Once installed, you should have access to the
git command line tool. The main commands that you will need to use are:
git clone ...: Clone a remote repository onto your local machine.
git checkout ...: Check out a particular branch or a tagged version of the code to hack on.
Clone the angular-phonecat repository located at GitHub by running the following command:
git clone --depth=16 https://github.com/angular/angular-phonecat.git
This command creates an
angular-phonecat sub-directory in your current directory.
--depth=16 option tells Git to pull down only the last 16 commits. This makes the download much smaller and faster.
Change your current directory to
The tutorial instructions, from now on, assume you are running all commands from within the
If you want to run the preconfigured local web server and the test tools then you will also need Node.js v4+.
You can download a Node.js installer for your operating system from https://nodejs.org/en/download/.
Check the version of Node.js that you have installed by running the following command:
In Debian based distributions, there might be a name clash with another utility called
node. The suggested solution is to also install the
nodejs-legacy apt package, which renames
apt-get install nodejs-legacy npm
Once you have Node.js installed on your machine, you can download the tool dependencies by running:
This command reads angular-phonecat's
package.json file and downloads the following tools into the
npm install will also automatically use bower to download the AngularJS framework into the
Note the angular-phonecat project is setup to install and run these utilities via npm scripts. This means that you do not have to have any of these utilities installed globally on your system to follow the tutorial. See Installing Helper Tools
below for more information.
The project is preconfigured with a number of npm helper scripts to make it easy to run the common tasks that you will need while developing:
npm start: Start a local development web server.
npm test: Start the Karma unit test runner.
npm run protractor: Run the Protractor end-to-end (E2E) tests.
npm run update-webdriver: Install the drivers needed by Protractor.
The Bower, Http-Server, Karma and Protractor modules are also executables, which can be installed globally and run directly from a terminal/command prompt. You don't need to do this to follow the tutorial, but if you decide you do want to run them directly, you can install these modules globally using,
sudo npm install -g ....
For instance, to install the Bower command line executable you would do:
sudo npm install -g bower
(Omit the sudo if running on Windows)
Then you can run the bower tool directly, such as:
Running the Development Web Server
The angular-phonecat project is configured with a simple static web server for hosting the application during development. Start the web server by running:
This will create a local web server that is listening to port 8000 on your local machine. You can now browse to the application athttp://localhost:8000/index.html.
To serve the web app on a different IP address or port, edit the "start" script within
package.json. You can use
-a to set the address and
-p to set the port. You also need to update the
baseUrl configuration property in
Running Unit Tests
The angular-phonecat project is configured to use Karma to run the unit tests for the application. Start Karma by running:
This will start the Karma unit test runner. Karma will read the configuration file
karma.conf.js, located at the root of the project directory. This configuration file tells Karma to:
Open up instances of the Chrome and Firefox browsers and connect them to Karma.
Execute all the unit tests in these browsers.
Report the results of these tests in the terminal/command line window.
It is good to leave this running all the time, in the background, as it will give you immediate feedback about whether your changes pass the unit tests while you are working on the code.
Running E2E Tests
We use E2E (end-to-end) tests to ensure that the application as a whole operates as expected. E2E tests are designed to test the whole client-side application, in particular that the views are displaying and behaving correctly. It does this by simulating real user interaction with the real application running in the browser.
The E2E tests are kept in the
The angular-phonecat project is configured to use Protractor to run the E2E tests for the application. Protractor relies upon a set of drivers to allow it to interact with the browser. You can install these drivers by running:
npm run update-webdriver
You don't have to manually run this command. Our npm scripts are configured so that it will be automatically executed as part of the command that runs the E2E tests.
Since Protractor works by interacting with a running application, we need to start our web server:
Then, in a separate terminal/command line window, we can run the Protractor test scripts against the application by running:
npm run protractor
Protractor will read the configuration file at
e2e-tests/protractor.conf.js. This configuration file tells Protractor to:
Open up a Chrome browser and connect it to the application.
Execute all the E2E tests in this browser.
Report the results of these tests in the terminal/command line window.
Close the browser and exit.
It is good to run the E2E tests whenever you make changes to the HTML views or want to check that the application as a whole is executing correctly. It is very common to run E2E tests before pushing a new commit of changes to a remote repository.
Firewall / Proxy issues
Git and other tools, often use the
git: protocol for accessing files in remote repositories. Some firewall configurations are blocking
git:// URLs, which leads to errors when trying to clone repositories or download dependencies. (For example corporate firewalls are "notorious" for blocking
If you run into this issue, you can force the use of
https: instead, by running the following command:
git config --global url."https://".insteadOf git://
Updating WebDriver takes too long
update-webdriver for the first time may take from several seconds up to a few minutes (depending on your hardware and network connection). If you cancel the operation (e.g. using
Ctrl+C), you might get errors, when trying to run Protractor later.
In that case, you can delete the
node_modules/ directory and run
npm install again.
Under the hood, Protractor uses the Selenium Stadalone Server, which in turn requires the Java Development Kit (JDK) to be installed on your local machine. Check this by running
java -version from the command line.
If JDK is not already installed, you can download it here.
Error running the web server
The web server is configured to use port 8000. If the port is already in use (for example by another instance of a running web server) you will get an
EADDRINUSE error. Make sure the port is available, before running
Now that you have set up your local machine, let's get started with the tutorial: Step 0 – Bootstrapping